Legal reform should be an integral part of any on going reform process. Legal reform is a tool for implementing necessary reforms, to balance competing interests, create a dynamic and sustainable economy, and build a sustainable civil society. During last decades the judiciary became active in economic issues related with economic rights established by constitution because "economics may provide insight into questions that bear on the proper legal interpretation". Since many a country with a transitional political and economic system continues treating its constitution as an abstract legal document disengaged from the economic policy of the state, practice of judicial review of economic acts of executive and legislative branches became to grow. Valery Zorkin stressed that "the «separation of powers» principle, also proclaimed in the Constitution of the Russian Federation, requires observance of judicial independence. And such independence requires proper funding of the courts and their activities. It is well known that Russian courts remain under funded. However, the cumulative economic costs suffered by both state and private enterprises as the result of under performance by various judicial institutions, especially by the courts of general jurisdiction and the arbitration courts, is at least twice the order of magnitude as the financial burden carried by the state and society in financing such judicial institutions. The elimination of under funding of the courts would definitely improve the efficiency of their work and be worthwhile. Lawyers refer to ‘the rule of law’ because a society which is governed without law leaves ordinary people at the mercy of the arbitrary abuse of power by those who are simply powerful. In some countries the rule of law is absent – think of Cambodia during the rule of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge, for example – and when that happens, life is very difficult for ordinary people who have no way of protecting themselves from the powerful.
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See United States v. Jackson, 978 F. 2d 903, 915 5th Cir. 1992, cert. denied, 508 U. S. Administrative Procedure Act and New York State law. Administrative law, as laid down by the Supreme Court of India, has also recognized two more grounds of judicial review which were recognized but not applied by English Courts, namely legitimate expectation and proportionality. The actions of executive agencies and independent agencies are the main focus of American administrative law. In response to the rapid creation of new independent agencies in the early twentieth century see discussion below, Congress enacted the Administrative Procedure Act APA in 1946. Many of the independent agencies operate as miniature versions of the tripartite federal government, with the authority to "legislate" through rulemaking; see Federal Register and Code of Federal Regulations, "adjudicate" through administrative hearings, and to "execute" administrative goals through agency enforcement personnel.